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研究生中文姓名:黃秀鳳
研究生英文姓名:Huang, Hsiu-Feng
中文論文名稱:飲食及生活型態與肥胖程度相關性之探討—以某大學大一新生為例
英文論文名稱:Investigation of the correlation between eating, life style and obesity status – a case study on the freshman of an university of an university
指導教授姓名:蔡國珍
口試委員中文姓名:教授︰周正俊
教授︰游若篍
助理教授︰蕭心怡
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學號:40142006
請選擇論文與海洋研究相關度:無相關
請選擇論文為:學術型
畢業年度:103
畢業學年度:102
學期:
語文別:中文
論文頁數:64
中文關鍵詞:肥胖身體質量指數飲食內容飲食習慣生活習慣
英文關鍵字:obesityBody Mass Indexdietary contentsdietary habitsliving habits
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造成肥胖的因素包括家庭背景、飲食內容、飲食習慣及生活習慣等,本研究以某大學大一新生為研究對象,以問卷方式,探討家庭因素、飲食內容、飲食習慣及生活習慣與肥胖之相關性。依據衛生福利部認定,凡身體質量指數(Body Mass Index, BMI)介於24至26.9 kg/m2者為體重過重,大於(含)27 kg/m2者為肥胖。本研究將體重過重及肥胖者(即MBI大於24 kg/m2)均列為肥胖群,列入肥胖族群分析。
本研究總測試學生1057人,包括男生708人(67%),女生349人(33%)。男生受試者的平均身高、體重、BMI及腰圍分別為172.32 ± 5.78 cm、66.9 ± 13.64 kg、22.51 ± 4.33 kg/m2、76.09 ± 11.72 cm,明顯大於女生(分別為160.73 ± 5.74 cm、53.66 ± 8.40 kg、20.78 ± 3.15 kg/m2、68.47 ± 7.68 cm)。符合肥胖定義的男生及女生人數(百分比)分別為201人(28%)及51人(15%)。男生受試者肥胖的比例幾乎比女生高出1倍( p = 0.000)。
個人及家庭背景因素影響受試學生的體位。肥胖學生的父親及母親體重明顯大於體重正常學生父親與母親的體重(分別為p = 0.011及p = 0.010)。然而,即使大學生在外面用餐機會增加,但父母仍是影響飲食習慣最深遠的人,且無論在何種體位都有相同結果。肥胖大一新生較容易出現想減肥的想法。
在飲食內容方面,在所有的高熱量食物中,「炸雞塊雞排」(p = 0.02)及「熱狗、香腸」(p = 0.02)這二類「高油脂類」食物,肥胖者的攝取頻率顯著高於體重正常者。其餘的高熱量食物在二種體位間並沒有顯著差異。
研究將飲食習慣分為「飲食頻率」、「飲食速度」及「喜愛餐點種類」三類。在飲食頻率方面,大一新生每天吃早餐的頻率(58.4%)遠遠低於午、晚餐的頻率(82.2%及86.0%)。雖然體重正常者晚餐(宵夜)用餐時間明顯晚於肥胖者(p = 0.008),然其睡覺時間亦較晚。在「飲食速度」方面,肥胖者用餐速度明顯比體重正常者快,其用餐時間少於10分鐘的比例(10.5%)明顯大於體重正常者(5.9%)。在「喜愛餐點種類」方面,肥胖者偏向重口味,與體重正常者有明顯差異(p = 0.000),其最喜歡口味為「煎、炒」,而體重正常者最喜歡口味為「蒸、煮、燙」。
生活習慣與肥胖息息相關,本研究將生活習慣方面分為「作息時間」、「動態活動」及「靜態活動」三方面。在「作息時間」面向中,體重正常者雖比肥胖者晚睡,然其睡眠時間明顯高於體重正常(p = 0.016)。體重正常者有6.3%睡眠時間大於9小時,但肥胖者僅有3.2%。在「靜態活動」方面,肥胖者吃飽懶得動的情形高於正常者(p = 0.007)。
Obesity factors include family background, dietary contents, dietary habits and living habits. This study was a case study on the freshmen of an university, to investigate the relationship between obesity and associated factors of family factors, dietary contents, dietary habits and living habits by questionnaire. According to the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the Body Mass Index(BMI) between 24 to 26.9 kg/m2 is defined as overweight, the BMI greater than (including) 27 kg/m2 is obesity. In this study, overweight and obesity students were classified as obesity group. They were included to obesity populations in the analysis.
In this study, there were 1057 students, including 708 boys (67%) and 349 girls (33%). The average height, weight, BMI and waist of the male respectively were 172.32 ± 5.78 cm, 66.9 ± 13.64 kg, 22.51 ± 4.33 kg/m2, 76.09 ± 11.72 cm, they were larger significantly than the female (respectively were 160.73 ± 5.74 cm, 53.66 ± 8.40 kg, 20.78 ± 3.15 kg/m2, 68.47 ± 7.68 cm). The number (percentage)of male and female of obesity respectively was 201 (28%) persons and 51(15%) persons. The obesity proportion of male almost 1 time higher than female (p = 0.000).
Personal and family background factors affected students' weight. Father and mother' weight of obesity students was heavier significantly than normal weight students (respectively p = 0.011 and p = 0.010). However, even college students increase dining opportunity of outside, but parents still were the most profound people on the eating habits, and no matter what weight of stundents had the same results. Obesity freshmen had more ideas of losing weight.
In the dietary contents, all of the high-calorie foods, "fried chicken" (p = 0.02) and "hot dogs, sausages" (p = 0.02) intaked frequency of obesity students was higher significantly than normal weight stundents. Other kinds of high-calorie foods during two kinds of weight of students had no significant difference.
Dietary habits contain"eating frequency", "eating speed" and "favorite food type ". In the "eating frequency", the frequency of eating breakfast every day of freshman (58.4%) was lower than lunch and dinner (82.2% and 86.0%). Although the dinner time(or night snake) of normal weight stundent was later significantly than obesity (p = 0.008), but the sleeping time was also delayed. In the " eating speed ", the meal time of obesity students was faster significantly than normal weight stundent. The proportion of their meal time with less than 10 minutes (10.5%) was greater significantly than normal weight stundents (5.9%). In the "favorite food type", the obesity stundents tend to heavier flavor. It was different significantly (p = 0.000) than normal weight stundents. Their favorite flavor was "stirred and fried", but the normal weight stundents' favorite flavor was "steaming and boiling".
Living habits were associated with obesity.The living habits contain "living schedule", "dynamic activities " and " quiet activities". In the "living schedule", although normal weight stundents' sleeping time was later than obesity students,but the total sleeping time was longer significantly than overweight stundents (p = 0.016) . There were 6.3% normal weight stundents had more than nine hours of sleeping time, but overweight stundents just had only 3.2%. In the " quiet activities", the frequency of eating and too lazy to move of obesity stundents was more than normal weight students (p = 0.007).
目錄

壹、前言 3
貳、文獻整理 4
一、肥胖的定義 4
二、肥胖的現況 7
三、肥胖的相關因素 8
(一)家庭因素 8
(二)飲食內容 10
(三)飲食習慣 12
(四)生活習慣 13
(五)肥胖基因 14
四. 兒童肥胖對成年期肥胖的影響 15
五. 肥胖對健康的影響 15
(一)肥胖與心血管疾病 15
(二)肥胖與糖尿病 16
(三)肥胖與肝膽疾病 16
(四)肥胖與癌症 17
(五)肥胖與關節炎 17
(六)肥胖與心理問題 17
參. 研究方法與步驟 19
一. 研究架構 19
二. 研究對象 20
三. 研究工具 21
四. 資料處理與統計分析 21
肆. 研究結果與討論 22
伍. 結論 29
陸. 參考文獻 30

圖目錄

圖一、大一新生晚餐或宵夜時間 35
圖二、大一新生一餐花費時間 35
圖三、大一新生飲食最喜歡的口味及外食最常用餐的形式 36
圖四、大一新生正常體重者與肥胖者最喜歡的口味及外食最常用餐的形式之比較 37
圖五、大一新生影響購買食物的主要因素 38
圖六、大一新生上床睡覺時間及起床時間之分佈 39
圖七、大一新生正常體重者與肥胖者上床睡覺時間及起床時間之比較 40
圖八、大一新生每天睡眠總時間 41
圖九、大一新生運動頻率及運動時間之分布圖 42
圖十、大一新生正常體重者與肥胖者運動頻率及運動時間分布之比較 43
圖十一、大一新生最常作的運動 44
圖十二、大一新生看電視、打電腦時間 44
圖十三、大一新生看電視或看書時邊吃零食的頻率 45
圖十四、大一新生吃飽懶得動的頻率 45

表目錄

表一、大一新生基本資料 46
表二、大一新生男生及女生體重正常及肥胖之人數及百分比 47
表三、大一新生正常體重者及肥胖者與基本資料之比較 48
表四、大一新生正常體重者與肥胖者家庭背景資料之比較 49
表五、大一新生高熱量食物攝取頻率 50
表六、大一新生正常體重者與肥胖者高熱量食物攝取頻率之比較 51
表七、大一新生男生及女生高熱量食物攝取頻率之比較 52
表八、大一新生非高熱量食物攝取頻率 53
表九、大一新生正常體重者與肥胖者非高熱量食物攝取頻率之比較 54
表十、大一新生男生及女生非高熱量食物攝取頻率之比較 55
表十一、大一新生三餐及宵夜飲食頻率 56
表十二、大一新生正常體重者與肥胖者三餐及宵夜飲食頻率之比較 56
表十三、大一新生正常體重者與肥胖者晚餐或宵夜時間之比較 57
表十四、大一新生正常體重者與肥胖者去吃到飽餐廳頻率之比較 57
表十五、大一新生正常體重者與肥胖者一餐花費時間之比較 58
表十六、大一新生正常體重者與肥胖者影響購買食物主要因素之比較 58
表十七、大一新生正常體重者與肥胖者每天睡眠總時間之比較 59
表十八、大一新生正常體重者與肥胖者生活作息是否規律之比較 59
表十九、大一新生正常體重者與肥胖者最常作的運動種類之比較 60
表二十、大一新生正常體重者與肥胖者看電視、打電腦時間之關係 60
表二十一、大一新生正常體重者與肥胖者看電視或看書時邊吃零食頻率之比較 61
表二十二、大一新生正常體重者與肥胖者吃飽懶得動頻率之比較 61
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