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研究生中文姓名:陶娟娟
研究生英文姓名:Thakkar Chandni Hirenkumar
中文論文名稱:比較分析美國與印度課程標準及印度教科書涵蓋海洋素養之研究
英文論文名稱:A Study of Comparative Ocean Literacy Coverage Analysis of the Educational Standards of India and the USA, and Indian Textbooks
指導教授姓名:吳靖國
張正杰
口試委員中文姓名:副教授︰葉庭光
教授︰鄭志文
教授︰吳靖國
副教授︰張正杰
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:教育研究所
學號:1059A019
請選擇論文與海洋研究相關度:直接相關
請選擇論文為:學術型
畢業年度:108
畢業學年度:107
學期:
語文別:英文
論文頁數:114
中文關鍵詞:Ocean literacyEducational standardsCoverage analysisIndian textbooksNGSSNCERT
英文關鍵字:Ocean literacyEducational standardsCoverage analysisIndian textbooksNGSSNCERT
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The ocean literacy (OL) is one of the most pivotal and emerging topics. Many scientists and educators across the globe are collaborating on various aspects to bring the OL into the classroom for cultivating ocean literate citizens. In recent years, the health status of several Indian water bodies is observed deteriorating. The pollution of water bodies is reached to alarming level and considering its serious consequences, we are motivated to trace the presence of ocean literacy concepts in Indian education followed by comparative analysis with the learning materials of the United States of America (USA), a leading country in ocean education. In this study, educational standards of India referred to as Indian National Standards (INSs), and of the educational standards of the USA referred to as Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) were analyzed individually and later compared on the different parameter with respect to coverage of fundamental OL concepts from grade I-XII. The study has adopted the qualitative approach and followed content analysis approach. It was observed that on an average OL concepts covered in the educational standards of the USA (NGSS) are higher than that of India (INSs). The study revealed that the out of the seven essential principles, principle no. 6 is highly accentuated in the educational standards of both the countries. Besides, results indicated that there is variation in proportion of OL alignment across grade bands in the educational standards of India and the USA.
In addition to comparative analysis, the detail analysis of Indian central government textbooks (ICGTs) was also undertaken following a similar approach with minor variation. The results indicated that the OL concepts are underrepresented in the ICGTs and there is lack of a uniform pattern in OL alignment across grades (I-XII). Further, similarities and differences were traced in the Indian educational standards (INSs) and textbooks (ICGTs) and it was discovered that there is a noticeable mismatch in the alignment at Middle and High school level in the national educational standards and textbooks of India. Moreover, it was found that geography discipline of Social studies exhibited a majority of OL concepts alignment in the national educational standards and textbooks of India.
Based on the aforementioned results, the proposed study intends to provide references to marine education researchers, curriculum developers, and educational policymakers in India to suitably adjust the OL coverage concepts in school instruction for cultivating OL literate citizens. The study yields the comparative framework between the educational standards of the USA (NGSS) and India (INSs), and Indian educational standards (INSs) and textbooks (ICGTs). NCERT (National Council of Education Research and Training), an in charge authority to draft curriculum and textbooks in India may incorporate few or all suggestions from the comparative analysis output and accordingly plan to incorporate sufficient OL concepts.
The ocean literacy (OL) is one of the most pivotal and emerging topics. Many scientists and educators across the globe are collaborating on various aspects to bring the OL into the classroom for cultivating ocean literate citizens. In recent years, the health status of several Indian water bodies is observed deteriorating. The pollution of water bodies is reached to alarming level and considering its serious consequences, we are motivated to trace the presence of ocean literacy concepts in Indian education followed by comparative analysis with the learning materials of the United States of America (USA), a leading country in ocean education. In this study, educational standards of India referred to as Indian National Standards (INSs), and of the educational standards of the USA referred to as Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) were analyzed individually and later compared on the different parameter with respect to coverage of fundamental OL concepts from grade I-XII. The study has adopted the qualitative approach and followed content analysis approach. It was observed that on an average OL concepts covered in the educational standards of the USA (NGSS) are higher than that of India (INSs). The study revealed that the out of the seven essential principles, principle no. 6 is highly accentuated in the educational standards of both the countries. Besides, results indicated that there is variation in proportion of OL alignment across grade bands in the educational standards of India and the USA.
In addition to comparative analysis, the detail analysis of Indian central government textbooks (ICGTs) was also undertaken following a similar approach with minor variation. The results indicated that the OL concepts are underrepresented in the ICGTs and there is lack of a uniform pattern in OL alignment across grades (I-XII). Further, similarities and differences were traced in the Indian educational standards (INSs) and textbooks (ICGTs) and it was discovered that there is a noticeable mismatch in the alignment at Middle and High school level in the national educational standards and textbooks of India. Moreover, it was found that geography discipline of Social studies exhibited a majority of OL concepts alignment in the national educational standards and textbooks of India.
Based on the aforementioned results, the proposed study intends to provide references to marine education researchers, curriculum developers, and educational policymakers in India to suitably adjust the OL coverage concepts in school instruction for cultivating OL literate citizens. The study yields the comparative framework between the educational standards of the USA (NGSS) and India (INSs), and Indian educational standards (INSs) and textbooks (ICGTs). NCERT (National Council of Education Research and Training), an in charge authority to draft curriculum and textbooks in India may incorporate few or all suggestions from the comparative analysis output and accordingly plan to incorporate sufficient OL concepts.
Abstract i
Acknowledgement iii
Table of Contents iv
List of Figures vi
List of Tables vii
List of abbreviations viii
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Motivation 4
1.3 Purpose of the Study 5
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Significance of the Study 6
1.6 Scope of the Study 7
1.7 Limitations of the study 7
Chapter 2: Literature Review 8
2.1 Marine Education (ME) 8
2.2 Ocean Literacy (OL) 8
2.3 Next Generation Science Standards (USA) 12
2.4 Indian Education System 17
Chapter 3: Methodology 23
3.1 Research Method 23
3.2 Conceptual Framework 24
3.3 Sample selection Description 24
3.3.1 OL standards 24
3.3.2 Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) 25
3.3.3 Indian National Standards (INSs) and Indian Central Government Textbooks (ICGTs) 25
3.4 Analysis Procedure 26
Chapter 4: Results 34
4.1 Analysis of the Next Generation Science Standards (USA) 34
4.1.1 Band-wise OL Alignment in NGSS 39
4.1.2 OL Principles Emphasized in NGSS 39
4.1.3 Criteria-wise OL Alignment in NGSS 41
4.1.4 OL Alignment in Multiple Subjects/Disciplines (NGSS) 42
4.2 Analysis of the Indian National Standards (INSs) 42
4.2.1 Band-wise OL Alignment in INSs 47
4.2.2 OL Principles Emphasized in INSs 47
4.2.3 Criteria-wise OL Alignment in INSs 49
4.2.4 OL Alignment in Multiple Subjects (INSs) 49
4.3 Comparative Analysis of the Educational Standards of the USA and India 50
4.3.1 Comparative Analysis of OL Mean Coverage (USA and India) 50
4.3.2 Comparative Analysis if OL Alignment Across Grade Bands (USA and India) 51
4.3.3 Comparative Analysis of OL Principles Coverage (USA and India) 52
4.3.4 Comparative Analysis of Criteria-wise OL Alignment (USA and India) 53
4.4 Analysis of the Indian Central Government Textbooks (ICGTs) 54
4.4.1 Mean Coverage of OL in ICGTs 62
4.4.2 OL Principles Emphasized in ICGTs 63
4.4.3 Criteria-wise OL Alignment in ICGTs 65
4.4.4 OL Alignment in Multiple Subjects (ICGTs) 66
4.5 Comparative Analysis of the INSs and ICGTs 68
4.5.1 Comparative Analysis of OL Alignment Across Grade Bands (INSs and ICGTs) 68
4.5.2 Comparative Analysis of OL Principles Coverage (INSs and ICGTs) 69
4.5.3 Comparative Analysis of Criteria-wise OL Alignment (INSs and ICGTs) 70
4.5.4 Comparative Analysis of OL Alignment in Multiple Subjects (INSs and ICGTs) 71
Chapter 5: Discussion and Conclusion 72
5.1 Summary of Research Findings and Discussion 72
5.2 Suggestions 74
5.3 Future research scope 76
5.4 Conclusion 77
References 78
Appendix A: OL Matrix of Index Topics (NMEA special report#3) 81
Appendix B: Sample Coding examples for the educational standards 82
Appendix C: Sample Coding examples for the textbooks (India) 88
Appendix D: Reliability (Cohen’s kappa) calculation procedure 91
Appendix E: Details of OL concepts aligned in the textbooks (India) 93
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