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研究生英文姓名:Lee, Yu-Chi
英文論文名稱:Climate Characteristics of Equator and North Pacific Sea Surface Temperature
英文關鍵字:climate changesea surface temperatureocean heat contentEmpirical Mode Decomposition
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海洋是調節氣候的重要因子,而在全球暖化、氣候變遷的環境下,海面溫度更是作為偵測天氣變化、氣候變遷的重要參數之一。本研究利用163年的實測海面溫度資料、33年的衛星遙測海面溫度資料以及62年的海洋熱含量資料。使用Huang et al. (1998) 所發展的經驗模態分解法,藉以瞭解全球海洋、北太平洋以及赤道太平洋區域過去一個世紀內的海面溫度變化趨勢,以及0-700公尺深的海洋熱含量之變化趨勢。

ERSST海面溫度的資料顯示出,長期趨勢在所有的研究區域中平均約在1970年之後呈現暖化的現象。其中,東赤道太平洋在1956年之後就開始暖化,為最早開始暖化的區域。長期趨勢的變化速率在各區域也都呈現出暖化速率增加的情形。但是從較長時間尺度趨勢的變化速率,則在近20年內都有暖化速率減緩的情形,全球海洋自1941年為0.0087°"C/year" 至2015年為-0.0061°"C/year" ,北太平洋自1998年為0.025°"C/year" 至2015年為0.011°"C/year" ,赤道太平洋自1998年為0.016°"C/year" 至2015年為"0.012" °"C/year" ,與Kosaka and Xie (2013)、Yan et al. (2016)提到全球暖化速率在1998至2013年間有減緩的情形相符。AVHRR海面溫度資料的長期趨勢則是在所有的研究區域中約在1980至2010年間為相對暖的時期,2010年之後為相對冷的時期。變化速率則是同樣在近20年內皆有暖化速率減緩的情形。海洋熱量含資料的長期趨勢則是除了西赤道太平洋之外,其餘的區域皆為持續增加的情形。變化速率則是在全球海洋、北太平洋與赤道太平洋區域為增加的情形,西赤道太平洋為持續減少的情形,東赤道太平洋則是幾乎維持在0.1"×" 〖"10" 〗^"18" "J/year" 附近,僅有略為減緩的情形。
Ocean is an important factor of adjusting the climate. On the other hand, under the circumstances of the global warming and the global change, sea surface temperature is a major indicator of weather variation and long-term climate change. In this thesis, Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature version 4 (ERSST), Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Sea Surface Temperature (AVHRR SST) and Ocean Heat Content (OHC) data supplied from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are applied. ERSST represents the late century’s trend, AVHRR SST represents the late 30-year trend and OHC represents the late 60-year trend. In addition, Huang et al. (1998) developed the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), which can be used in nonlinear and nonstationary data analysis.

The ERSST result shows that no matter in all study regions, there have been the warmer circumstances since 1970. In the meanwhile, the warming in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific is earlier than it is in the Western Equatorial Pacific. However, as the long-term change showed, since 1941 the warming in all the global oceans has started decreasing instead. The warming rate of 1941 was 0.0087°"C/year" but in 2015, the rate decreased to -0.0061°"C/year" . Furthermore, the North Pacific is 0.025°C/year in 1998 but is 0.011°"C/year" in 2105. Similarly, in the Equatorial Pacific, the warming rate of 1998 was 0.015°"C/year,but it also decreased to " 0.012°"C/year" in 2015. The result is concordant with some of the recent papers, which found that the warming reduced between 1998 and 2013 (Kosaka and Xie, 2013; Yan et al., 2016).

In AVHRR data’s results, there are warmer situation in all regions between 1980 and 2010. However, there has been the cooler situation in all regions since 2010. The warming rates also have decreased in the late 20 years. Moreover, the OHC data showed that there have increased situations in all regions except the Western Equatorial Pacific. The change rate increases in the global oceans, the North Pacific and the Equatorial Pacific, and the Equatorial Pacific. In the Eastern Equatorial Pacific is around 0.1"×" 〖"10" 〗^"18" "J/year" through the period, but in the Western Equatorial Pacific, it decreases.
致謝 I
摘要 II
Abstract III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 V
表目錄 VI
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 2
1.3 文獻回顧 2
1.4 論文架構 3
第二章 研究資料及方法 4
2.1 研究範圍 4
2.2 研究資料 4
2.2.1 ERSST海洋表面溫度 4
2.2.2 AVHRR海洋表面溫度 5
2.2.3 海洋熱含量 5
2.2.4 海洋聖嬰指數 6
2.3 研究方法 6
2.3.1 資料處理 6
2.3.2 經驗模態分解法 7
2.3.3 顯著性檢測 8
2.3.4 時間尺度 8
2.3.5 變化速率 9
3.1 ERSST 海面溫度 10
3.1.1 全球 10
3.1.2 北太平洋 11
3.1.2 赤道太平洋 13
3.1.4 全球、北太平洋與赤道太平洋的比較 15
3.1.5 西赤道太平洋與東赤道太平洋 16
3.2 AVHRR海面溫度 18
3.2.1 全球 18
3.2.2 北太平洋與赤道太平洋 19
3.2.3 西赤道太平洋與東赤道太平洋 20
3.3 海洋熱含量 20
3.3.1 全球 20
3.3.2 北太平洋與赤道太平洋 21
3.3.3 西赤道太平洋與東赤道太平洋 22
3.3.4 熱含量與ERSST、AVHRR的比較 23
3.4 其它全球暖化議題相關文獻結果的參考與比較 24
第四章 結論與建議 26
4.1 結論 26
4.2 建議 27
參考文獻 28
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