字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  

詳目顯示

以作者查詢圖書館館藏以作者&題名查詢臺灣博碩士以作者查詢全國書目
研究生中文姓名:李昱祺
研究生英文姓名:Lee, Yu-Chi
中文論文名稱:赤道、北太平洋海面溫度氣候特徵
英文論文名稱:Climate Characteristics of Equator and North Pacific Sea Surface Temperature
指導教授姓名:黃世任
口試委員中文姓名:教授︰郭南榮
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:海洋環境資訊系
學號:10581002
請選擇論文與海洋研究相關度:直接相關
請選擇論文為:學術型
畢業年度:106
畢業學年度:105
學期:
語文別:中文
論文頁數:68
中文關鍵詞:氣候變遷海洋表面溫度海洋熱含量經驗模態分解法
英文關鍵字:climate changesea surface temperatureocean heat contentEmpirical Mode Decomposition
相關次數:
  • 推薦推薦:0
  • 點閱點閱:64
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:28
  • 收藏收藏:0
海洋是調節氣候的重要因子,而在全球暖化、氣候變遷的環境下,海面溫度更是作為偵測天氣變化、氣候變遷的重要參數之一。本研究利用163年的實測海面溫度資料、33年的衛星遙測海面溫度資料以及62年的海洋熱含量資料。使用Huang et al. (1998) 所發展的經驗模態分解法,藉以瞭解全球海洋、北太平洋以及赤道太平洋區域過去一個世紀內的海面溫度變化趨勢,以及0-700公尺深的海洋熱含量之變化趨勢。

ERSST海面溫度的資料顯示出,長期趨勢在所有的研究區域中平均約在1970年之後呈現暖化的現象。其中,東赤道太平洋在1956年之後就開始暖化,為最早開始暖化的區域。長期趨勢的變化速率在各區域也都呈現出暖化速率增加的情形。但是從較長時間尺度趨勢的變化速率,則在近20年內都有暖化速率減緩的情形,全球海洋自1941年為0.0087°"C/year" 至2015年為-0.0061°"C/year" ,北太平洋自1998年為0.025°"C/year" 至2015年為0.011°"C/year" ,赤道太平洋自1998年為0.016°"C/year" 至2015年為"0.012" °"C/year" ,與Kosaka and Xie (2013)、Yan et al. (2016)提到全球暖化速率在1998至2013年間有減緩的情形相符。AVHRR海面溫度資料的長期趨勢則是在所有的研究區域中約在1980至2010年間為相對暖的時期,2010年之後為相對冷的時期。變化速率則是同樣在近20年內皆有暖化速率減緩的情形。海洋熱量含資料的長期趨勢則是除了西赤道太平洋之外,其餘的區域皆為持續增加的情形。變化速率則是在全球海洋、北太平洋與赤道太平洋區域為增加的情形,西赤道太平洋為持續減少的情形,東赤道太平洋則是幾乎維持在0.1"×" 〖"10" 〗^"18" "J/year" 附近,僅有略為減緩的情形。
Ocean is an important factor of adjusting the climate. On the other hand, under the circumstances of the global warming and the global change, sea surface temperature is a major indicator of weather variation and long-term climate change. In this thesis, Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature version 4 (ERSST), Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Sea Surface Temperature (AVHRR SST) and Ocean Heat Content (OHC) data supplied from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are applied. ERSST represents the late century’s trend, AVHRR SST represents the late 30-year trend and OHC represents the late 60-year trend. In addition, Huang et al. (1998) developed the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), which can be used in nonlinear and nonstationary data analysis.

The ERSST result shows that no matter in all study regions, there have been the warmer circumstances since 1970. In the meanwhile, the warming in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific is earlier than it is in the Western Equatorial Pacific. However, as the long-term change showed, since 1941 the warming in all the global oceans has started decreasing instead. The warming rate of 1941 was 0.0087°"C/year" but in 2015, the rate decreased to -0.0061°"C/year" . Furthermore, the North Pacific is 0.025°C/year in 1998 but is 0.011°"C/year" in 2105. Similarly, in the Equatorial Pacific, the warming rate of 1998 was 0.015°"C/year,but it also decreased to " 0.012°"C/year" in 2015. The result is concordant with some of the recent papers, which found that the warming reduced between 1998 and 2013 (Kosaka and Xie, 2013; Yan et al., 2016).

In AVHRR data’s results, there are warmer situation in all regions between 1980 and 2010. However, there has been the cooler situation in all regions since 2010. The warming rates also have decreased in the late 20 years. Moreover, the OHC data showed that there have increased situations in all regions except the Western Equatorial Pacific. The change rate increases in the global oceans, the North Pacific and the Equatorial Pacific, and the Equatorial Pacific. In the Eastern Equatorial Pacific is around 0.1"×" 〖"10" 〗^"18" "J/year" through the period, but in the Western Equatorial Pacific, it decreases.
致謝 I
摘要 II
Abstract III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 V
表目錄 VI
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 2
1.3 文獻回顧 2
1.4 論文架構 3
第二章 研究資料及方法 4
2.1 研究範圍 4
2.2 研究資料 4
2.2.1 ERSST海洋表面溫度 4
2.2.2 AVHRR海洋表面溫度 5
2.2.3 海洋熱含量 5
2.2.4 海洋聖嬰指數 6
2.3 研究方法 6
2.3.1 資料處理 6
2.3.2 經驗模態分解法 7
2.3.3 顯著性檢測 8
2.3.4 時間尺度 8
2.3.5 變化速率 9
3.1 ERSST 海面溫度 10
3.1.1 全球 10
3.1.2 北太平洋 11
3.1.2 赤道太平洋 13
3.1.4 全球、北太平洋與赤道太平洋的比較 15
3.1.5 西赤道太平洋與東赤道太平洋 16
3.2 AVHRR海面溫度 18
3.2.1 全球 18
3.2.2 北太平洋與赤道太平洋 19
3.2.3 西赤道太平洋與東赤道太平洋 20
3.3 海洋熱含量 20
3.3.1 全球 20
3.3.2 北太平洋與赤道太平洋 21
3.3.3 西赤道太平洋與東赤道太平洋 22
3.3.4 熱含量與ERSST、AVHRR的比較 23
3.4 其它全球暖化議題相關文獻結果的參考與比較 24
第四章 結論與建議 26
4.1 結論 26
4.2 建議 27
參考文獻 28
中央氣象局,全球暖化與氣候變遷(http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V7/climate/climate_info/climate_change/change_1.html)
中央氣象局,臺灣的溫度變化(http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V7/climate/climate_info/taiwan_climate/taiwan_2/taiwan_2_1.html)
中央氣象局,臺灣氣候變異的主要影響因素(http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V7/climate/climate_info/taiwan_climate/taiwan_5.html)
Chao, Y., Ghil, M. and McWilliams, J. (2000). Pacific interdecadal variability in this century's sea surface temperatures. Geophysical Research Letters, 27(15), pp.2261-2264.
Collins, M., An, S., Cai, W., Ganachaud, A., Guilyardi, E., Jin, F., Jochum, M., Lengaigne, M., Power, S., Timmermann, A., Vecchi, G. and Wittenberg, A. (2010). The impact of global warming on the tropical Pacific Ocean and El Niño. Nature Geoscience, 3(6), pp.391-397.
Deser, C., Alexander, M., Xie, S. and Phillips, A. (2010). Sea Surface Temperature Variability: Patterns and Mechanisms. Annual Review of Marine Science, 2(1), pp.115-143.
Hansen, J., Sato, M., Ruedy, R., Lo, K., Lea, D. and Medina-Elizade, M. (2006). Global temperature change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(39), pp.14288-14293.
Hansen, J., Ruedy, R., Sato, M. and Lo, K. (2010). GLOBAL SURFACE TEMPERATURE CHANGE. Reviews of Geophysics, 48(4).
Hartmann, D., Klein Tank, A., Rusticucci, M., Alexander, L., Brönnimann, S., Charabi, Y., Dentener, F., Dlugokencky, E., Easterling, D., Kaplan, A., Soden, B., Thorne, P., Wild, M. and Zhai, P. (2013). Observations: Atmosphere and Surface. Climate Change 2013 - The Physical Science Basis, pp.159-254.
Huang, N., Shen, Z., Long, S., Wu, M., Shih, H., Zheng, Q., Yen, N., Tung, C. and Liu, H. (1998). The empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert spectrum for nonlinear and non-stationary time series analysis. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 454(1971), pp.903-995.
Huang, N. (2006). Computing frequency by using generalized zero-crossing applied to intrinsic mode functions. US6990436 B1.
Huang, B., Banzon, V., Freeman, E., Lawrimore, J., Liu, W., Peterson, T., Smith, T., Thorne, P., Woodruff, S. and Zhang, H. (2015). Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature Version 4 (ERSST.v4). Part I: Upgrades and Intercomparisons. Journal of Climate, 28(3), pp.911-930.
Ishii, M., Shouji, A., Sugimoto, S. and Matsumoto, T. (2005). Objective analyses of sea-surface temperature and marine meteorological variables for the 20th century using ICOADS and the Kobe Collection. International Journal of Climatology, 25(7), pp.865-879.
Jones, P., Lister, D., Osborn, T., Harpham, C., Salmon, M. and Morice, C. (2012). Hemispheric and large-scale land-surface air temperature variations: An extensive revision and an update to 2010. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 117(D5).
Kennedy, J., Rayner, N., Smith, R., Parker, D. and Saunby, M. (2011). Reassessing biases and other uncertainties in sea surface temperature observations measured in situ since 1850: 2. Biases and homogenization. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116(D14).
Kosaka, Y. and Xie, S. (2013). Recent global-warming hiatus tied to equatorial Pacific surface cooling. Nature, 501(7467), pp.403-407.
Lau, K. and Weng, H. (1999). Interannual, Decadal–Interdecadal, and Global Warming Signals in Sea Surface Temperature during 1955–97. Journal of Climate, 12(5), pp.1257-1267.
Lawrimore, J., Menne, M., Gleason, B., Williams, C., Wuertz, D., Vose, R. and Rennie, J. (2011). An overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network monthly mean temperature data set, version 3. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116(D19).
Levitus, S. (1984). Annual Cycle of Temperature and Heat Storage in the World Ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 14(4), pp.727-746.
Levitus, S. (2000). Warming of the World Ocean. Science, 287(5461), pp.2225-2229.
Levitus, S., Antonov, J., Boyer, T., Baranova, O., Garcia, H., Locarnini, R., Mishonov, A., Reagan, J., Seidov, D., Yarosh, E. and Zweng, M. (2012). World Ocean heat content and thermosteric sea level change (0-2000 m), 1955-2010. Geophysical Research Letters, 39(10).
Locarnini, R. A., A. V. Mishonov, J. I. Antonov, T. P. Boyer, H. E. Garcia, O. K. Baranova, M. M. Zweng, and D. R. Johnson. (2010). World Ocean Atlas 2009, Volume 1: Temperature. S. Levitus, Ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 68, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., pp. 184.
Mantua, N. and Hare, S. (2002). The Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Journal of Oceanography, 58(1), pp.35-44.
Mao, K., Ma, Y., Tan, X., Shen, X., Liu, G., Li, Z., Chen, J. and Xia, L. (2017). Global surface temperature change analysis based on MODIS data in recent twelve years. Advances in Space Research, 59(2), pp.503-512.
Minobe, S. (1999). Resonance in bidecadal and pentadecadal climate oscillations over the North Pacific: Role in climatic regime shifts. Geophysical Research Letters, 26(7), pp.855-858.
Minobe, S. (2000). Spatio-temporal structure of the pentadecadal variability over the North Pacific. Progress in Oceanography, 47(2-4), pp.381-408.
Morice, C., Kennedy, J., Rayner, N. and Jones, P. (2012). Quantifying uncertainties in global and regional temperature change using an ensemble of observational estimates: The HadCRUT4 data set. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 117(D8), p.n/a-n/a.
Rayner, N. (2003). Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108(D14).
Rohde, R., Jacobsen, R., Muller, E., Wickham, C. and A. Muller, R. (2013). A New Estimate of the Average Earth Surface Land Temperature Spanning 1753 to 2011. Geoinformatics & Geostatistics: An Overview, 01(01).
Smith, T., Reynolds, R., Peterson, T. and Lawrimore, J. (2008). Improvements to NOAA’s Historical Merged Land–Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis (1880–2006). Journal of Climate, 21(10), pp.2283-2296.
Weng, H., Lau, K. and Xue, Y. (1999). Multi-Scale Summer Rainfall Variability Over China and its Long-Term Link to Global Sea Surface Temperature Variability. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan. Ser. II, 77(4), pp.845-857.
Wolter, K. and Timlin, M. (1998). Measuring the strength of ENSO events: How does 1997/98 rank? Weather, 53(9), pp.315-324.
Wolter, K. and Timlin, M. (2011). El Niño/Southern Oscillation behaviour since 1871 as diagnosed in an extended multivariate ENSO index (MEI.ext). International Journal of Climatology, 31(7), pp.1074-1087.
Wu, Z. and Huang, N. (2004). A study of the characteristics of white noise using the empirical mode decomposition method. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 460(2046), pp.1597-1611.
Wu, Z., Huang, N., Long, S. and Peng, C. (2007). On the trend, detrending, and variability of nonlinear and nonstationary time series. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(38), pp.14889-14894.
Yan, X., Boyer, T., Trenberth, K., Karl, T., Xie, S., Nieves, V., Tung, K. and Roemmich, D. (2016). The global warming hiatus: Slowdown or redistribution?. Earth's Future, 4(11), pp.472-482.
電子全文
全文檔開放日期:2017/07/17
 
 
 
 
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
* *