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研究生中文姓名:賴俊文
研究生英文姓名:LAI,JYUN-WUN
中文論文名稱:以無人機監測船舶大氣排放技術初探
英文論文名稱:Primary Study on Using Drones for Ship Emission Monitoring
指導教授姓名:華健
口試委員中文姓名:助理教授︰黃國銘
副教授︰楊春陵
教授︰華健
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:輪機工程學系
學號:10566020
請選擇論文為:學術型
畢業年度:108
畢業學年度:107
學期:
語文別:中文
論文頁數:61
中文關鍵詞:船舶監測無人機
英文關鍵字:Ship monitoringDrone
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全球船舶大氣排放持續增長,迫使國際海事組織(International Maritime Organization, IMO)與歐盟(European Union, EU)頒布一些限制性海事法令來監管船舶排放,以減少對環境造成的影響。最早防止船舶污染國際公約(International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, MARPOL)附則六(Annex VI),限制船舶的硫氧化物(SO_X)、氮氧化物(NO_X)排放,但對於監測方式始終無明確規定。直到2013年,EU提出航運溫室氣體(Greenhouse Gases, GHGs)排放監控、報告、驗證(Measuring Reporting Verification, MRV)法規,規定航行至EU港口商船須自我監測二氧化碳(CO_2)排放,並計算運轉時的燃料消耗、排放等相關訊息,以形成區域性減碳目標,並有效的管理船舶所排放的GHGs。面對國際法規趨勢,往後船舶都必須自行選擇監測排氣方式。在MRV法規的監測環節中提供了四種監測方式,但由於昂貴設備成本和操作上的困難等因素,造成許多船東難以接受。本研究探討以既有技術,利用具高機動性的無人機搭載氣體分析儀,飛行至船舶煙囪附近進行排氣實測,並和計算及文獻的排放估測值作比較,以初步驗證此技術是否可靠。本實驗所得結果顯示,排放監測無人機有其應用潛力,但仍賴進一步克服諸多技術問題。這些問題包括:無人機旋翼產生的下沖氣流(downwash)會分散周圍的氣體物質,造成量測時的誤差,以及量測時的環境影響等。如何針對這些問題加以改善,是無人機能否在短期未來實際應用於船舶排氣監測的關鍵。
The growth of global atmospheric emissions from ships forced IMO and the EU to issue restrictive maritime laws to regulate ship emissions. The earlier MARPOL convention is designed to limit mainly, the SO_X and NO_X pollutant emissions of ships without clear regulation on the method and procedure for emission monitoring. In 2013, the EU proposed the MRV regulations for shipping GHGs. Merchant ships navigating to EU port merchants must self-monitor CO_2 emissions, calculate fuel consumption and emission during operation, in order to effectively manage GHGs emissions from ships and therefore meet regional carbon reduction targets. In the face of international regulations, ships in the future must choose method for exhaust monitoring. Four monitoring methods are provided in the monitoring section of the MRV regulations, but many ship owners are burdened by factors such as cost of expensive equipment and ease of operation. This study explored the possibility of using existing technology to incorporate a highly maneuverable drone with gas analyzers. It is flied to ship's exhaust plume for actual exhaust gas monitoring. The test data are compared with estimate data obtained from calculations and literature to verify the reliability. The results obtained in this experiment show that there is potential of applying a drone for monitoring emission from ships. Many technical problems need to be overcome. For example, the effect of air stream generated by the drone rotor can disperse the surrounding gas substances, causing errors in measurement. In addition, the micro-environment can also influence the measurements. Solving these problems through further study will be the key to the application of drone on ship emission monitoring in the near future.
摘要 I
Abstract II
目錄 III
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VII
中英文對照表 IX
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究背景與動機 1
1.2研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2.1大氣排放的影響 3
2.2空氣污染物 4
2.2.1一般來源 4
2.2.2港區大氣排放 4
2.3船舶動力及燃料 5
2.3.1船舶動力廠 5
2.3.2船用燃料 6
2.4船舶大氣排放 7
2.5 防止船舶空氣污染之相關法規 8
2.5.1國內空氣污染相關法規 8
2.5.2 IMO MARPOL公約 8
2.6船舶排氣監測探討 10
2.6.1 EU-MRV 10
2.6.2 IMO-DCS 11
2.6.3 EU-MRV和IMO-DCS監測機制比較 11
2.6.4 IMO-DCS與EU-MRV之監測環節探討 13
2.7船舶既有的排氣監測設備 15
2.8船舶排氣監測案例 19
2.9船舶排放量估算 22
第三章 研究方法與程序 23
3.1實驗流程圖 22
3.2實驗設備 24
3.2.1多旋翼無人機 24
3.2.2量測儀器 24
3.3實驗前置作業 26
3.3.1無人機飛行條件 26
3.3.2儀器測試 27
3.4實驗操作流程 28
3.4.1以無人機系統監測船舶煙囪排氣 28
3.4.2以無人機系統監測陸上輪機動力場煙囪排氣 32
第四章 結果與討論 35
4.1船舶排氣濃度值與估算值比較 35
4.1.1船舶排氣監測數據分析 35
4.1.2船舶排放數據推估 39
4.1.3監測值濃度單位轉換 41
4.1.4船舶監測濃度數值比較 41
4.2陸上輪機動力場排氣監測數據分析 42
4.2.1陸上輪機動力場排放GHGs比較 48
4.2.2陸上輪機動力場排放空氣污染物比較 49
4.3無人機監測技術探討 50
4.3.1無人機架構 50
4.3.2監測技術探討 51
4.3.3既有監測技術比較 51
4.3.4未來無人機技術運用於船舶排氣監測 52
第五章 結論與建議 55
5.1結論 55
5.2建議 55
參考文獻 56
附錄1 船舶排放係數 59

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