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研究生中文姓名:潘賢哲
研究生英文姓名:Pan, Hsien-Che
中文論文名稱:臺灣發展離岸發電面臨之漁業問題及其對策之研究
英文論文名稱:Study on the offshore wind energy faced with fishery problem and countermeasure in Taiwan
指導教授姓名:歐慶賢
口試委員中文姓名:業界委員︰劉燈城
教授︰劉文宏
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:環境生物與漁業科學學系
學號:10331007
請選擇論文與海洋研究相關度:間接相關
請選擇論文為:學術型
畢業年度:105
畢業學年度:104
學期:
語文別:中文
論文頁數:88
中文關鍵詞:離岸風電離岸風場漁業補償基準離岸風電回饋金友善漁業空間規劃
英文關鍵字:offshore wind energyoffshore windfarmthe standard of fishery compensationthe feedback money of offshore wind energyfriendly spatial planning of fishery
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我國離岸風電之開發計畫全數選在沿岸漁業盛行之西部海域,因此勢必對當地漁業造成影響,然究竟離岸風場對漁業會造成何種影響、程度為何、又有何減輕或共存之對策,漁民均不甚瞭解,進而導致誤解與衝突之發生,阻礙我國離岸風電之發展。基此,本研究旨在探討離岸風場在施工前場址的規劃、漁業補償機制、風電回饋機制、漁業活動與淺海養殖的影響評估,以及施工中、商轉後之糾紛調處與資源影響,以及商轉後漁船航行安全與漁業友善空間規劃等問題,並提出可行之解決對策,俾利我國離岸風電之發展。其結果摘要如下:

一、全球離岸風電之發展重心仍集中於歐洲,其中英國以階段性之「區塊開發」成為全球裝置容量之領先者;德國則依靠本身良好的重工業技術緊追在後;而丹麥在發展上雖有減緩之趨勢,但因投入開發得早,故目前仍排在第三。
二、離岸風場相較於陸域風場,增加了基座建設、電網併聯與鋪設海底電纜等建造成本,因此必須藉由技術研發、市場需求與政策支持來降低成本。各國皆企圖提高單機之容量,期望在相同面積的海域中,能擷取更多的風力資源,並積極投入浮式風機之研究,企圖突破目前著床式風機受限於淺海區域之問題。
三、我國離岸風電之發展主要可分為三個階段,首先是透過獎勵補助之方式吸引業者投入示範風場之開發,接著公告36塊潛力場址,提供有興趣投資的業者能提早辦理準備作業,最後頒布「離岸風電區塊開發政策」,推動國內大規模之開發,訂定至2030年達到4GW。
四、我國目前無論是風機的設計、製造、建造與維修都須仰賴進口,因此應積極推動海事運維在地化、關鍵零組件國產化,以提升臺灣離岸風電之技術與產業之自給率,健全並加速我國離岸風電之發展。
五、我國雖然對於漁業權漁業之損害已有明確的補償基準,但其中漁獲淨收益損失(C3)的部分,有許多參數在制訂時並沒有說明該如何應用,且在漁業資源及生態復育(C4)的部分更是毫無科學依據,基此,為使補償公式更加合理、科學、好用,勢必要對其進行調整,甚或是直接參考日本以淨現值之方式來算定。
六、特定漁業之許可受到損害時基於信賴保護原則,也應給予合理之補償,因此建議可採用與漁業權漁業相同之補償基準來算定,而其中來自外縣市作業之漁船則必須自行提供有在該海域作業之證明,方能得到補償。
七、為增進漁民福祉與促進地區漁業永續發展,當地縣政府與漁會皆會要求開發單位撥付離岸風電回饋金,不過目前我國尚無統一該筆回饋金之計算與運用,故建議可調整臺電陸上發電行之有年的《臺電之促協金執行要點》,建立「離岸風電促協金」,以免造成雙方對立之局面。
八、風場對流刺網漁業之影響最大,因此須透過主管機關與漁民團體進行協商,請流刺網漁業主動採取迴避措施。
九、風場之航行安全設施除了應符合IALA的規定外,尚可在每座風機裝設燈光設備,並在風場周圍設置具有雷達反射器及燈光之浮標,以提高漁船對風場與風機之注意力。
十、我國若在離岸風場商轉後導入友善漁業空間規劃之概念,再加上風場設置後,形成之人工魚礁效應,可復育當地漁業資源,同時還能結合海洋生態教育與休閒漁業的發展,創造電力開發、漁業發展與資源復育三贏之局面。
  The development plans of offshore wind energy all carry out at the western maritime space which would affect the local fisheries because of the high develop of the coast fishery. However, the influence, which caused by the development of the offshore windfarm and the countermeasure to coexist with the fishery, was not well known by fisherman. These misunderstood would cause conflicts that interrupt the development of the offshore wind energy. Thus, the aim of our research is to study about the operation planning before construction, the fishery compensation, the feedback of the offshore wind energy, the impact assessment of the fishery activity and offshore mariculture, the dispute mediation and the affect of resources during construction and after operation, the safety of fishing boat sailing after operation and the friendly spatial planning of fishery. We also brought up the workable strategy to increase the development of the offshore wind energy. The abstract is as below:

a. The development of the offshore wind energy mainly concentrates at Europe. Among these country of Europe, England became the leader of installed capacity of the world by execute regional development stepwise, follow up by German which has great technology of heavy industry. Otherwise, even though the development had slow down in Denmark, because of the early exploitation of the offshore wind energy makes Denmark become third place.
b. Compare to the land wind energy, offshore wind energy has more prime cost because of the construction of base, the parallel power network and the submarine cable. Therefore, we need to decrease the prime cost by doing the research and developing technology, increasing the requirement of the market and the policy support. In order to overcome the problem of the limit position of implantation turbine, every country tend to increase the capacity of each turbine, which can obtain more wind resources in the same area, and do research of floating turbine.
c. The development of the offshore wind energy can divided into three stages in Taiwan. First, we attract industry to develop the demonstration windfarm by reward and subsidy manner. Second, we bulletin thirty-six potential windfarm to provide the advanced preparing of industry for development. Finally, we bulletin the “ the strategy of the offshore wind block” to drive the internal large-scale development and aims to reach 4GW in 2030.
d. These days, the design, manufacture, construction and repair of turbine all depends on import. Therefore, we need to drive localization of maritime operation-maintenance and the Taiwan-made key component to increase the technology of the offshore wind energy and become independent-industry, which can also increase the development of our offshore wind energy.
e. Although Taiwan had set up the compensate standard of the damage of the fishery, there still some unknown parameters of profit and loss account of fishery harvesting (C3). The fishery resources and recovery of environment (C4) also have no scientific bases. Therefore, in order to make the compensate formula more reasonable, scientific and useful, we need to adjust it or calculate as net present value which just like Japan.
f. Depends on the trust protection principles, it should get reasonable compensation when the specific fisheries damaged. Thus, we suggest calculating by the same compensation standard as fishery right. In addition, the fishing boat, which comes from other country, need to provide the certificate to prove the accessibility to get the compensation.
g. In order to increase the welfare of fisherman and the sustainable development of local fishery, the county regional government and fisherman’s association both ask for the feedback money of the offshore wind energy from the development organization. Because there is still no union calculation and applications, we suggest to modify the rules of execution of the Taiwan Power Company’s operating assiatant money, which aims to promote the development of the electric power operations, to build up the promoting and assistant money of offshore wind energy that avoiding the conflict between each other.
h. The offshore windfarm mainly influence the gill net fishery. Thus, it needs to consult and discuss with fisherman’s group through authorities to ask gill net fishery to avoid fishing in the offshore windfarm.
i. The sailing security facilities in the windfarm need to fit in with the rule of IALA, in addition, it is available to assemble light equipment at each turbine and also set up the radar reflection and the shining float around the windfarm to increase fishing boats’ attention of windfarm and turbine.
j. If we add friendly spatial planning of fishery into offshore windfarm after operation and in addition to the effect of artificial reef caused by setting up the windfarm, it can repopulation local fishery resources. It also can combine the marine ecology and leisure fishery to produce the electric power exploitation, fishery development and resource recovery which creates the win-win situation.
摘要
Abstract
目次 I
圖目次 II
表目次 III
第壹章 緒論 1
 第一節 研究動機 1
 第二節 研究目的 2
 第三節 研究方法 2
 第四節 論文架構 3
第貳章 國內外離岸風電之發展概況 7
 第一節 國外離岸風電發展之概況 7
 第二節 臺灣離岸風電發展之概況 11
 第三節 小結 13
第參章 國外離岸風電對漁業影響及其對策之經驗分析 28
 第一節 離岸風場施工前 28
 第二節 離岸風場施工中 32
 第三節 離岸風場商轉後 34
 第四節 小結 40
第肆章 臺灣離岸風電面臨之漁業問題及其對策之分析 52
 第一節 離岸風場施工前 52
 第二節 離岸風場施工中 60
 第三節 離岸風場商轉後 61
 第四節 小結 63
第伍章 結論與建議 75
 第一節 結論 75
 第二節 建議 76
參考文獻 78
附錄 82
一、中文部分

王佩蓉‧李欣哲‧朱正南 (2015). 英國離岸風電發展政策與策略研析。工業技術研究院綠能與環境研究所,5pp。
呂學德‧何無忌‧呂威賢‧胡哲魁‧陳美蘭‧連永順 (2015). 臺灣離岸風力潛能與優選離岸區塊場址研究。第三十六屆電力工程研討會,6pp。
李俊峰 (2012). 中國風電發展報告2012。中國環境出版社,北京,32-33。
李彥蒲 (2014). 臺灣發展離岸風力對漁業的影響及其雙贏策略之研究。國立臺灣海洋大學碩士論文,61pp。
邱淑慧【譯】 (2012). 全球暖化背後的科學證據–IPCC報告科普版。科學人雜誌,精彩100環境科學特輯,50-51。
林彥勳 (2014). 全球主要國家離岸風電服務業現況調查與推動策略分析。工業技術研究院,4pp。
康志堅 (2015). 2015年全球離岸風電之產業發展趨勢。工業技術研究院產經中心,5。
張心紜 (2014). 臺灣,起風了。經濟部能源局能源報導,2:21。
陳芙靜‧李孟諺 (2010). 前瞻全球離岸風力發電技術與臺灣產業機會分析。財團法人金屬工業研究發展中心,8-9。
溫敏麒‧張桂肇‧張珮錡‧楊瑞源‧黃煌煇 (2012). 離岸風力發電場於航行安全因應措施之研究。第34屆海洋工程研討會論文集,875-880。
經濟部能源局 (2016). 離岸風電區塊開發政策環評說明書(初稿)。臺北,2。
福海風力發電股份有限公司籌備處 (2013). 「海離岸風力發電計畫(第一期工程)」環境影響說明書。327-368。
臺灣電力公司 (2007). 研習離岸風力發電計畫規劃、環評、施工、運轉、維護等相關技術。11。
謝明叡 (2013). 丹麥離岸風力發電競標機制作法。臺灣經濟研究院,15pp。

二、日文部分

日本海洋産業研究会 (2013). 洋上風力発電等の漁業協調の在り方に関する提言,77pp。

三、英文部分

Anatec (2002). Burbo bank offshore wind farm-navigation risk assessment, UK, 233pp.
BERR (2008). Review of the reef effects of offshore wind farm structures and potential for enhancement and mitigation, 113pp.
Blyth-Skyrme, R.E. (2010). Options and opportunities for marine fisheries mitigation associated with windfarms. Final report for Collaborative Offshore Wind Research Into the Environment contract FISHMITIG09. COWRIE Ltd, London. 70pp.
DEA(2013). New offshore wind tenders in Denmark. Danish Energy Agency, København, 40pp.
Degraer, S. and R. Brabant (2009). Offshore wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea: state of the art after two years of environmental monitoring, 48.
Department of Enegy and Climmate Change (2011). Applying for safety zones around offshore renewable energy installation, 18pp.
EWEA (2016). The European offshore wins industry - key trends and statistic 2015. European Wind Energy Association, Belgium, 10.
Floww (2014). Best practice guidance for offshore renewables developments: recommendations for fisheries liaison. UK, 74pp.
Grosholz, E. (2002). Ecological and evolutionary consequences of coastal invasions. Trens in Ecology&Evolution, 17: 22-27.
GWEC (2016). Global Wind report-annual market update 2015. Global Wind Energy Council, Belgium, 48-55.
IALA (2008). IALA recommendation O-139 on the marking of man-made offshore structures. 36pp.
IEA (2015). Key world energy statistics. International Energy Agency, Paris, 48.
Kron, R., L. Gutow, T. Brey, J. Dannheim and A. Schröder (2013). Mobile demersal megafauna at artificial structures in the German Bight - Likely effects of offshore wind farm development. Coastal and Shelf Science, 125: 1-9.
Krone, R., L. Gutow, T. J. Joschko, and A. Schröder (2013). Epifauna dynamics at an offshore foundation - Implications of future wind power farming in the North Sea. Marine Environmental Research, 85: 1-12.
Langhamer, O. (2012). Artificial reef effect in relation to offshore renewable energy conversion: State of the Art. The Scientific World Journal, 1100:1-8.
Leary, D. and M. Esteban (2009). Renewable energy from the ocean and tides: A viable renewable energy resource in search of a suitable regulatory framework. Carbon and Climate Law Review, 10.
Lindeboom. H. J., H. J. Kouwenhoven, M. J. N. Bergman, S. Bouma, S. Brasseur, R. Daan, R. C. Fijn, D. D. Haan, S. Dirksen, R. V. Hal, R. H. R. Lambers, R. T. Hofstede, K. L. Krijgsveld, M. Leopold and M. Scheidat (2011). Short-term ecological effects of an offshore wind farm in the Dutch coastal zone; a compilation. Environmental Research Letters, 6(3): 1-13.
Maar, M., K. Bolding, J. K. Petersen, J. L. S. Hansen and K. Timmermann (2009). Local effects of blue mussels around turbine foundations in an ecosystem model of Nysted off-shore wind farm, Denmark. Journal of Sea Research, 62(2-3): 159-174.
Mackinson, S., H. Curtis, R. Brown, K. McTaggart, N. Taylor, S. Neville and S. Rogers (2006). A report on the perceptions of the fishing industry into the potential socioeconomic impacts of offshore wind energy developments on their work patterns and income. Cefas Lowestoft, 133: 99pp
Pickering, H., D. Whitmarsh and A. Jensen (1998). Artificial Reefs as a Tool to Aid Rehabilitation of Coastal Ecosystems: Investigating the Potential. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 37(8-12): 505-514.
Reubens, J. T., M. D. Rijcke, S. Degraer and M. Vincz (2013). Diel variation in feeding and movement patterns of juvenile Atlantic cod at offshore wind farms. Journal of Sea Research, 85: 214-221.
Reubens, J., T. S. Vandendriessche, A. N. Zenner and S. Degraer (2013). Offshore wind farms as productive sites or ecological traps for gadoid fishes - Impact on growth, condition index and diet composition. Marine Environmental Research, 90: 66-74.
Stenberg, C., M. Christoffersen, P. Mariani, C. Krog, P. Dolmer, M. M. Molmer and D. Tørring, (2010). Offshore wind farms and their potential for shellfish aquaculture and restocking. ICES, CM/O:12.
UNEP(2012). Green economy in a Blue World. United Nations Environment Programme. Kenya, 12-13.
Wahlberg, M. and H. Westerberg (2005). Hearing in fish and their reactions to sounds from offshore wind farms. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 288: 295-309.
Wever, L., G. Krause, and B. H. Buck (2015). Lessons from stakeholder dialogues on marine aquaculture in offshore wind farms: Perceived potentials, constraints and research gaps. Marine Policy, 51: 251–259.
Wilhelmsson, D., T. Malm and M. C. Öhman (2006). The influence of offshore windpower on demersal fish. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 63(5): 775-784.
Wilhelmsson, D., T. Malm, , R. Thompson, J. Tchou, G. Sarantakos, N. McCormick, S. Luitjens, M. Gullström, J. K. P. Edwards, O. Amir and A. Dubi (2010). Greening Blue Energy: Identifying and managing the biodiversity risks and opportunities of off shore renewable energy. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Switzerland, 44.



四、網路部分

Cefas (2014). Shellfish Aquaculture in Welsh Offshore Wind Farms – The Potential for Co-location. Internet. 22 Jun, 2016. Available.
http://www.thefishsite.com/articles/1918/shellfish-aquaculture-in-welsh-offshore-wind-farms-the-potential-for-colocation/
Global Offshore Wind Farms Database. Online. 4C offshore. Internet. 25 May, 2016. Available.
http://www.4coffshore.com/windfarms/
Global Wind Speed Rankings. Online. 4C Offshore. Internet. 26 May, 2016. Available.
http://www.4coffshore.com/windfarms/windspeeds.aspx.
Offshore wind. Online. RenewableUK. Internet. 5 May, 2016. Available.
http://www.renewableuk.com/en/renewable-energy/wind-energy/offshore-wind/
吳健平 (2015). 臺灣西部各區漁會對離岸風力發電系統之看法與意見,Internet. 26 May, 2016. Available.
www.twtpo.org.tw/tools/download.ashx?id=22
海洋再生可能エネルギー利用促進に関する今後の取組方針について。Online. 首相官邸. Internet. 26 May, 2016. Available.
http://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/singi/kaiyou/torikumi_kongo/index.html
黃心豪 (2013). 離岸風力發電在臺灣,Internet. 26 May, 2016. Available.
http://www.ntuce-newsletter.tw/vol.66/T4_1M.html
確保核安 穩健減核. Online. 經濟部. Internet. 16 May, 2016. Available.
http://anuclear-safety.twenergy.org.tw/.
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