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研究生中文姓名:黃亭鈞
研究生英文姓名:Huang, Ting-Chun
中文論文名稱:使用TCP協定實現低延遲即時視訊串流服務
英文論文名稱:Realizing Low Latency Real-Time Video Streaming Service with TCP
指導教授姓名:黃俊穎
口試委員中文姓名:副教授︰馬尚彬
助理教授︰曾俊元
助理教授︰吳育松
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學號:10257019
請選擇論文為:學術型
畢業年度:104
畢業學年度:103
學期:
語文別:中文
論文頁數:30
中文關鍵詞:Multiple-Flow TCP即時影像串流TCPUDPSCTP
英文關鍵字:Multiple-Flow TCPReal-time video streamingTCPUDPSCTP
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即時視訊串流大多以UDP進行資料的傳輸。和TCP比較起來,UDP沒有隊頭阻塞(head of line blocking)的問題,因此其效能不會因為封包遺失而大幅降低。然而UDP無法提供可靠的資料傳輸,此外,在某些網路設定下,如流量管制、防火牆或是NAT,UDP可能會有無法運作的情況。過去的研究曾利用其他的傳輸層協定如SCTP來解決上述的問題,但SCTP對於即時視訊串流的表現如何並不明確,且其普及率不高。在主流的桌面系統如Windows、Linux以及Mac以及行動裝置上的支援都不完整。因此對於Internet上的多媒體應用,如安全監控或是雲端遊戲等即時視訊串流的應用,並不適用。
有鑑於此,我們提出一個以TCP為基礎的即時視訊串流協定設計。我們提出了Multiple-Flow TCP模型,利用多個平行的TCP連線進行串流,除了可以利用TCP的可靠傳輸機制,也降低封包遺失對於整體傳輸效能造成的影響。我們的實測結果顯示,Multiple-Flow TCP有接近UDP的傳輸效能,同時也具備TCP和SCTP的好處。我們亦進行使用者研究,在相同的網路環境下,傳輸真實的即時視訊串流。透過影像品質分析,我們也證實Multiple-Flow TCP的設計可以有比TCP及SCTP更好的表現,即使是在較差的網路環境下依然可以有與UDP相當的延遲表現,而在影像品質分析的峰值信噪比上也有比UDP更好的表現。
Most real-time video streams are delivered using UDP. Compared against TCP, UDP does not have the head-of-line blocking effect, and therefore the performance does not drop dramatically due to packet losses. However, UDP does not offer a reliable packet delivery service, and it may not work in certain network setups including traffic shaping, firewall, and NAT. Researchers have attempted to solve the aforementioned problem using SCTP. However, the performance of SCTP on real-time video streaming is not clear, and it is not built-in for most off-the-shelf operating systems including both desktop and mobile OSes. As a result, it could not be a good choice for the demanding real-time multimedia streaming applications such as cloud gaming and video surveillance.

Based on the observation, we proposed a real-time video streaming protocol design based on TCP, which is called multiple-flow TCP model. In this model, we leverage concurrent TCP flows to deliver multimedia streams. In addition to take the benefits of reliable packet delivery, the performance drop caused on packet losses can be mitigated and therefore improve the overall throughput. Our evaluation shows that the multiple-flow TCP model has a similar performance to UDP, and it offers the benefits of TCP and SCTP. We further conduct user studies to understand real user experiences regarding the performance of the proposed model. It also shows that the multiple-flow TCP model can perform better than TCP and SCTP in terms of real-timeliness and video quality.
摘要 I
Abstract II
目次 III
圖次 V
第一章 緒論 1
第二章 相關研究 3
2.1. 影像的傳輸優先權 3
2.2. 多串流與隊頭阻塞 4
2.3. 預測模型與相關應用 5
2.4. 通訊協定的表現 6
2.5. 其他 7
第三章 研究方法 8
3.1 Multiple-Flow TCP 模型 8
3.2 隊頭阻塞與連續傳輸長度 9
3.3 隊頭阻塞與多串流架構 9
3.3.1. 封包層面 9
3.3.2. 畫面層面 9
3.3.3. SCTP多串流機制 10
3.4 即時視訊串流與影像品質 10
3.5 總結 11
第四章 實驗與實驗結果 13
4.1. 實驗架構 13
4.1.1. 網路模擬工具Dummynet 14
4.1.2. 實驗控制變數與環境 15
4.1.3. 實驗環境 15
4.2. 延遲表現的實驗結果 16
4.2.1. Multiple-Flow TCP封包層面延遲表現 16
4.2.2. Multiple-Flow TCP畫面層面延遲表現 18
4.2.3. SCTP 封包層面延遲表現 20
4.2.4. SCTP 畫面層面延遲表現 21
4.2.5. Multiple-Flow TCP 與SCTP封包層面的延遲比較 21
4.2.6. Multiple-Flow TCP傳輸量表現 22
4.2.7. SCTP傳輸量表現 24
4.2.8. 延遲實驗總結 24
4.3. 即時視訊串流驗證 25
4.4. 總結 26
第五章 結論與未來的展望 27
參考文獻 28
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