字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  

詳目顯示

以作者查詢圖書館館藏以作者&題名查詢臺灣博碩士以作者查詢全國書目
研究生中文姓名:吳培瑋
研究生英文姓名:Wu, Pei-Wei
中文論文名稱:南大西洋海域灰鯖鮫(Isurus oxyrinchus)年齡與成長研究
英文論文名稱:Age and growth of shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) in the south Atlantic Ocean
指導教授姓名:莊守正
口試委員中文姓名:教授︰邱萬敦
助理教授︰蔡文沛
教授︰莊守正
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:環境生物與漁業科學學系
學號:10231020
請選擇論文與海洋研究相關度:直接相關
請選擇論文為:學術型
畢業年度:105
畢業學年度:104
學期:
語文別:中文
論文頁數:63
中文關鍵詞:灰鯖鮫年齡與成長脊椎骨von Bertalanffy with size at birth成長方程式
英文關鍵字:Isurus oxyrinchusage and growthvertebravon Bertalanffy with size at birth growth function
相關次數:
  • 推薦推薦:0
  • 點閱點閱:70
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:54
  • 收藏收藏:0
灰鯖鮫(Isurus oxyrinchus)為一種於全球溫帶與熱帶海域棲息之魚種,本研究使用南大西洋海域(0°22´ N - 38°53´ S,49°06´ W - 12°47´ E)2011年5月到2014年8間月臺灣鮪延繩釣遠洋觀察員所採集之灰鯖鮫脊椎骨進行年齡與成長參數推估。脊椎骨矢狀切片採用X-ray照射並計算明暗帶輪紋數。所使用樣本雌魚140尾、雄魚128尾。本種之成長經最大概似法檢定雌雄間存在顯著差異(P<0.05)。從邊緣成長率變化推測本魚種之成長週期為一年,不透明帶在10月形成。以非線性迴歸評估von Bertalanffy with size at birth成長參數為雌魚極限體長L∞ = 392.7 cm FL、成長係數k = 0.0367/yr;雄魚為極限體長L∞ = 327.9 cm FL、成長係數k = 0.0484 /yr。灰鯖鮫雄魚在0-4歲間之成長速率高魚雌魚,之後則顯是雌魚高於雄魚。雌魚之最大觀測體長(tmax)為313公分,雄魚則為250公分,最大觀測年齡雌、雄分別為35歲與21歲。
The shortfin mako(Isurus oxyrinchus)is an epipelagic species distributed in temperate and tropical seas. Growth band pairs were counted on sagittal slice vertebral centra by using a X-ray method.The specimen collected by observers in Taiwanese longline fisheries is used for age and growth analysis. Between May 2011 to Aug. 2014, 140 female and128 male were captured in south Atlantic(0°22´ N - 38°53´ S, 49°06´ W - 12°47´ E). Marginal increment analysis indicated that annual opaque band formed during October. Applied the Likelihood ratio test, the von Bertalanffy growth function between female and male revealed which in south Atlantic was significant different(P<0.05). von Bertalanffy with size at birth parameters estimated as following estimates: L∞ = 392.7 cm FL、k = 0.0367/yr for female; L∞ = 327.9 cm FL、k = 0.0484 /yr for male. From age 1 to 4, the growth rate of males is larger than that of females, thereafter, females showed a significantly larqer growth rate compared to females. Maximum length observed was reached at age 35 and 313 cm FL for female, and age 21 and 250 cm FL for male.
摘要 ............................................................................................................................... I
Abstract ......................................................................................................................... II
第1章 前言 ................................................................................................................. 1
1-1 分類地位與型態特徵 ......................................................................................... 1
1-2 漁業資源概況 ..................................................................................................... 2
1-3 文獻回顧 ............................................................................................................. 2
1-4 研究動機與目的 ................................................................................................. 4
第2章 材料與方法 ..................................................................................................... 5
2-1 樣本採集與量測 ................................................................................................. 5
2-2 年齡形質之選擇 ................................................................................................. 5
2-3 脊椎骨的處理與量測 ......................................................................................... 5
2-4 體重與尾叉長之迴歸關係 ................................................................................. 6
2-5 椎徑與尾叉長之迴歸關係 ................................................................................. 6
2-6 脊椎骨輪紋判讀 ................................................................................................. 6
2-7 輪紋形成週期判定 ............................................................................................. 7
2-8 出生輪之判定與年齡推估 ................................................................................. 8
2-9 成長方程式 ......................................................................................................... 8
2-10 最佳套適成長方程式選定 ............................................................................... 9
2-11 雌、雄成長方程式之差異檢定 ....................................................................... 9
2-12 成長速率 ......................................................................................................... 10
2-13 理論極限年齡推估 ......................................................................................... 10
第3章 結果 ............................................................................................................... 12
3-1 樣本搜集 ........................................................................................................... 12
3-2 體重與尾叉長之迴歸關係 ............................................................................... 12
3-3 椎徑與尾叉長迴歸關係 ................................................................................... 12
3-4 輪紋判讀與精確度分析 ................................................................................... 12
3-5 邊緣分析與邊緣成長率及輪紋週期判定 ....................................................... 13
3-6 成長方程式 ....................................................................................................... 13
3-7 最適成長方程式 ............................................................................................... 14
3-8 成長速率 ........................................................................................................... 14
3-9 理論極限壽命 ................................................................................................... 15
第4章 討論 ............................................................................................................... 16
ii
4-1 年齡成長之研究方法 ....................................................................................... 16
4-2 樣本的採集與數據分析 ................................................................................... 16
4-3 形質取樣的選定 ............................................................................................... 17
4-4 輪紋的判讀 ....................................................................................................... 18
4-5 出生輪紋與輪紋形成週期 ............................................................................... 19
4-6 成長方程式之比較 ........................................................................................... 20
4-7 成長速率與壽命 ............................................................................................... 24
4-8 分佈情形 ........................................................................................................... 25
4-9 未來展望 ........................................................................................................... 25
參考文獻 ..................................................................................................................... 26
Barreto, R. R., W. K. T. de Farias, H. Andrade, F. M. Santana, and R. Lessa (2016). Age, growth and spatial distribution of the life stages of the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus (Rafinesque, 1810) caught in the western and central atlantic. PLoS ONE 11(4): 1-19

Beamish, R. J. and G. A. McFarlane (1983). Validation of age determination estimates: the forgotten requirement. In: Prince ED, Pulos LM (eds) Proceedings of the international workshop on age determination of oceanic pelagic fishes: tunas, billfishes, and sharks. NOAA Technical Report, NMFS 8: 29–33.

Bigelow, H. B. and W. C. Schroeder (1948). Sharks. Pages 59-546 In: J. Tee-Van, editor. Fishes of the Western North Atlantic. Memoir Sears Foundation for Marine Research. Yale University, New Haven.

Bishop, S. D. H., M. P. Francis, C. Duffy, and J. C. Montgomery (2006). Age, growth, maturity, longevity and natural mortality of the shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) in New Zealand waters. Marine and Freshwater Research 57: 143-154.

Blanco-Parra, M. P., F. G. Magaña, and F. M. Farías (2008). Age and growth of the blue shark, Prionace glauca Linnaeus, 1758, in the northwest coast off Mexico. Revista de biología marina y oceanografía 43(3): 513-520.

Braccini, J. M., B. M. Gillanders, T. I. Walker, and T. A. Javier (2007). Comparison of deterministic growth models fitted to length at age data of the piked spurdog (Squalus megalops) in south-eastern Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 58: 24-33.

Branstetter, S. (1981). Biological notes on the sharks of north central Gulf of Mexico. Contribb. Marine Science 24: 13-34.

Branstetter, S. (1987). Age and growth validation of newborn sharks held in laboratory aquaria, with comments on the life history of the Atlantic sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae. Copeia 1987: 291-300.

Branstetter, S. and J. A. Musick (1994). Age and growth estimates for the sand tiger in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 123: 242-254.

Brothers, E. B. (1983). Summary of round table discussions on age validation. U.S. Dep. Commer. NOAA Technical Report, NMFS 8: 35-44.

Burnham K. P. and D. R. Anderson (2004). Multimodel inference understanding AIC and BIC in model selection. Sociological Methods Research 33(2): 261-304.

Cailliet, G. M. and D. W. Bedford (1983). The biology of three pelagic sharks from California waters, and their emerging fisheries: a review. CalCOFI. Rep. 24:57-69.

Cailliet, G. M., L. K. Martin, J. T. Harvey, D. Kusher, and B. A. Welden (1983). Preliminary studies on the age and growth of the blue shark, Prionace glauca, common thresher, Alopias vulpinus, and shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, from California waters. U. S. Dept. Comm., NOAA Technical Report, NMFS 8:179-188

Cailliet, G. M., L. J. Natanson, B. A. Welden, and D. A. Ebert (1985). Preliminary studies on the age and growth of the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, using vertebral bands. Memoirs of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 9: 49-60.

Cailliet, G. M., M. S. Radtke, and B. A. Welden (1986). Elasmobranch age determination and verification: a review, In: Indo-Pacific Fishes Biology: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Indo-Pacific Fishes, T. Uyeno, R. Arai, T. Matsuura (eds), Ichthyological Society of Japan, Tokyo, 345–359.

Cailliet, G. M. (1990). Recommendations for research needed to better understand the age and growth of elasmobranches. NOAA Technical Report, NMFS 90: 505-507.

Cailliet, G. M., H. F. Mollett, G. G. Pittenger, D. Bedford, and L. J. Natanson (1992). Growth and demography of the pacific angel shark (Squatina californica), based upon tag returns off California. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 43:1313-1330.
Cailliet, G. M. and K. J. Goldman (2004). Age determination and validation in chondrichthyan fishes. In: Biology of sharks and their relatives. Edited by J. Carrier, J. A. Musick, and M. R. Heithaus. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Fla. pp. 399–447.

Cailliet, G. M., W. D. Smith, H. F. Mollet, and K. J. Goldman (2006). Age and growth studies of chondrichthyan fish: The need for consistency in terminology, verification, validation, and growth function fitting. Environ. Developments in Environmental Biology of Fishes 77: 211-228.

Campana, S. E. (1983). Feeding periodicity and the production of daily growth increaments in otoliths of steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) and starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 61: 1591-1597.

Campana, S. E. and J. D. Neilson (1985). Microstructure of fish otoliths. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 42: 1014-1032.

Campana, S. E. (2001). Accuracy, precision and quality control in age determination, including a review of the use and abuse of age validation methods. Journal of fish biology 59: 197-242.

Campana, S. E., L. J. Natanson, and S. Myklevoll (2002). Bomb dating and age determination of large pelagic sharks. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59: 450-455.

Carlson, J. K., E. Cortés, and A. G. Johnson (1999). Age and growth of the blacknose shark, Carcharhinus acronotus, in the eastern gulf of Mexico. Copeia 3: 684-691.

Carlson, J. K. and I. E. Baremore (2005). Growth dynamics of the spinner shark (Carcharhinus brevipinna) off the United States southeast and Gulf of Mexico coasts: a comparison of methods. Fishery Bulletin 103: 280–291.

Casey, J. G. and N. E. Kohler (1992). Tagging studies on the shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus)in the western North Atlantic. Aust. Marine and Freshwater Research 43: 45-60.

Chan, R. W. K. (2001). Biological studies on sharks caught off the coast of New South Wales. PhD thesis, Sidney: University of New South Wales.

Chan, H. J. (2011). Assessment of the impact on pelagic sharks by Taiwanese longline fishery in the Northwest Pacific using an integrated ecological risk analysis. M. S. thesis, Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries. National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan, 78 pp. (In Chinese)

Chen, P. (2004). Comparison of fitting growth equations on fishes with different body shapes. M. S. thesis, Institute of Marine Resource Management. National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan, 66 pp. (In Chinese)

Chen, N. F. (2006). Fishery biology of the oceanic whitetip shark, Carcharhinus longimanus, in the northeastern Taiwan waters. M. S. thesis, Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries. National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan, 71 pp. (In Chinese)

Chen, H. C. (2007). Shark management based on vital parameters analysis. M. S. thesis, Institute of Marine Resource Management. National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan, 131 pp. (In Chinese)

Cliff, G., S. F. J. Dudley, and B. Davis (1990). Sharks caught in the protective gill nets off Natal, South Africa. 3. The shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus. South African Journal of Marine Science 9: 115-126.

Compagno, L. J. V. (1984). Sharks of the world: an annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species know to date. FAO species catalogue, Vol. 4, Part. 1, Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes, U. N. Dev. Prog, Rome. 249 pp.

Compagno, L. J. V. (1998). K. E. Carpenter and V. H. Niem (eds.) FAO identification guide for fishery purposes. The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO, Rome. 1274-1278 pp.

Compagno, L. J. V. (2001). Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes No.1, Vol. 2, 269pp.

Cortés, E. (1999). Standardized diet compositions and trophic levels of sharks. ICES Journal of Marine Science 56: 707-717.
Cox, G. and M. Francis (1997). Sharks and rays of New Zealand. University of Canterbury Press. 68 pp.

Day, T. and P. D. Taylor (1997). Von Bertalanffy’s growth equation should not be used to model age and size at maturity. The American Naturalist 149: 381-393.

Doño, F., S Montealegre-Quijano, A Domingo, and P. G. Kinas (2015). Bayesian age and growth analysis of the shortfin mako shark Isurus oxyrinchus in the Western South Atlantic Ocean using a flexible model. Environmental Biology of Fishes 98: 517-533.

Duffy, C and M. P. Francis (2002). Evidence of summer parturition in shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) sharks from New Zealand waters. N. Z. J. Marine and Freshwater Research 35: 319-324.

Economakis, A. E. and P. S. Lobel (1998). Aggregation behavior of the gray reef shark, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, at Johnston Atoll, central Pacific Ocean. Environmental Biology of Fishes 51:129-139.

Fabens, A. J. (1965). Properties and fitting of the von Bertalanffy growth curve. Growth. 29: 265-289.

Francis, M. P. and J. D. Stevens (2000). Reproduction, embryonic development, and growth of the porbeagle shark, Lamna nasus, in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Fishery Bulletin 98: 41-63.

Francis, M. P. and C. Duffy (2005). Length at maturity in three pelagic sharks (Lamna nasus, Isurus oxyrinchus, and Prionace glauca) from New Zealand. Fishery Bulletin 103: 489-500.

Gallagher, M. J., M. J Green, and C. P. Nolan (2006). The potential use of caudal thorns as a non-invasive ageing structure in the thorny skate (Amblyraja radiata Donovan, 1808). Marine and Freshwater Research 77: 265–272.

Gilmore, R. G. (1993). Reproductive biology of lamnoid sharks. Environmental Biology of Fishes 38: 95-114.

Goldman, K. J. (1997). Regulation of body temperature in the white shark Carcharodon carcharias. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 167: 423-429.

Gompertz, B. (1825). On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality and on a new mode of determining life contingencies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 115:513-585.

Hayashi, J. (1976). Studies on the growth of the red tilefish in the East China Sea -I. A fundamental consideration for age determination from otoliths. Bulletin of Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 42: 1237-1242.

Heist, E. J., J. A. Musick, and J. E. Graves (1996). Genetic population structure of the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) inferred from restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53: 583-588.

Hill, K. T., G. M. Gailliet, and R. L. Radtke (1989). A comparative analysis of growth zones in four calcified structures of Pacific blue marlin, Makaira nigricans. Fishery Bulletin 87: 829-843.

Hoenig, J. M. and S. H. Gruber (1990). Life history patterns in the elasmobranchs: implications for fisheries management. In: Elasmobranchs as Living Resources: Advances in the Biology, Ecology, Systematics, and the Status of the Fisheries. NOAA Technical Report 90. pp. 1–16.

Holden, M. J. and P. S. Meadows (1962). The structure of the spine of the spur dogfish (Squalus acanthias L.) and its use for age determination. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 42: 179-197.

Holden, M. J. (1973). Are long-term sustainable fisheries for elasmobranches possible? Rapp P-V Réun Cons Perm Int Explor Mer. 164: 360-367.

Holts, D. B and D. W. Bedford (1993). Horizontal and vertical movements of the shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus, in the southern California Bight. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 44: 501-509.

Hsu, H. H. (2003). Age, growth, and reproduction of shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, in the northwestern Pacific. M. S. thesis, Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries. National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan, 107 pp. (In Chinese)

Huang, C. C. (2006). Age and growth of the blue shark, Prionace glauca, in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. M. S. thesis, Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries. National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan, 82 pp. (In Chinese)

International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (2011). Report for biennial period, 2010-11 PART I (2010)- Vol. 1, Spain.

Jonson, A. G. (1983). Comparsion of dorsal spines and vertebrae as ageing structures for little tuna, Euthynnus alletteratus, from the northeast Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Technical Report, NMFS 8: 111-116.

Joung, S. J. and C. T. Chen (1995). Reproduction in the sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus, in the waters off northeastern Taiwan. Copeia 1995: 659-665.

Joung, S. J., Y. Y. Liao, and C. T. Chen (2004). Age and growth of sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus, in northeastern Taiwan Waters. Fisheries Research 70: 83-96.

Kimura, D. K. (1980). Likelihood models for the von Bertalanffy growth curve. Fishery Bulletin 77: 765-767.

King, M. (1995). Fisheries biology, assessment and management. Oxford: Fishing News Books. Cambridge, Mass. Distributors. Blackwell Science. 341pp.

King, J. R. and G. A. McFarlane (2003). Marine fish life history strategies: applications to fishery management. Fisheries Management and Ecology 10: 249–264.

Kleiber, P., S. Clarke, K. Bigelow, H. Nakano, M. McAllister, and Y. Takeuchi (2009). North Pacific blue shark stock assessment. U.S. Dep. Comm. NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS. PIFSC. 17, 74 pp.

Klimley, P. A. (1987). The determinants of sexual segregation in the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewin. Environmental Biology of Fishes 18:27-40.

Kusher, D. I., S. E. Smith, and G. M. Cailliet (1992). Validated age and growth of the leopard shark, Triakis semifasciata, with comments on reproduction. Environmental Biology of Fishes 35: 187-203.

Lessa, R., F. M. Santana, and R. Paglerani (1999). Age, growth and stock structure of the oceanic whitetip shark, Carcharhinus longimanus, from the southwestern equatorial Atlantic. Fisheries Research 42: 21–30.

Lessa, R., F. M. Santana, and F. H. Hazin (2004). Age and growth of the blue shark, Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758), off northeastern Brazil. Fisheries Research 66: 19-30.

Leu, G. T. (2012). Age and growth of blue shark (Prionace glauca) in the south hemisphere Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. M. S. thesis, Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries. National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan, 87 pp. (In Chinese)

Li, G. T. (2012). Integration of the world fishies information 230. National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan, 63 pp. (In Chinese)

Liu, K. M., P. J. Chiang, and C. T. Chen (1998). Age and growth estimates of the bigeye thresher shark, Alopias superciliosus, in northeastern Taiwan waters. Fishery Bulletin 96: 482-491.

Lopez, S., P Barría, and R Meléndez (2012). Scientific Note Feeding and trophic relationships of two highly migratory sharks in the eastern south Pacific Ocean. Pan-American Journal of Aquatic Sciences 7(1): 50-56.

Lyu, L. C. (1997). Some aspects on fishery biology of the spinner shark, Carcharhinus brevipinna, in the northeastern waters of Taiwan. M. S. thesis, Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries. National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan, 68 pp. (In Chinese)

Manning, M. J. and M. P. Francis (2005). Age and growth of blue shark (Prionace glauca) from the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone. New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report, 52 pp.

Matt, M. E. and D. R. Gunderson (2007). Age, growth, maturity, and mortality of the Alaska skate, Bathyraja parmifera, in the eastern Bering Sea. Environmental Biology of Fishes 80: 309-323.

McFarlane, G. A. and J. R. King (2006). Age and growth of big skate (Raja binoculata) and longnose skate (Raja rhina) in British Columbia waters. Fisheries Research 78: 169-178.

Mollet, H. F., G. Cliff, H. L. Pratt Jr., and J. D. Stevens (2000). Reproductive biology of the female shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, 1810, with comments on the embryonic development of lamnoids. Fishery Bulletin 98: 299-318.

Myers, R. A., J. K. Baum, T. D. Shepherd, S. P. Power, and C. H. Peterson (2007). Cascading effects of the loss of apex predatory sharks from a coastal Ocean. Science 315: 1846-1850.

Nammack, M. F., J. A. Musick, and J. A. Colvocoresses (1985). Life history of spiny dogfish off the northeastern United States. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 114: 367-376.

Natanson, L. J. (1984). Aspects of the age, growth and reproduction of the pacific angel shark, Squatina californica, off Santa Barbara, California. Unpubl. MS. thesis, San Jose State, University, San Jose, CA, 71 pp.

Natanson, L. J. and G. M. Cailliet (1986). Reproduction and development of the Pacific angel shark, Squatina californica, off Santa Barbara, California. Copeia 1986: 944-987.

Natanson, L. J. and G. M. Gailliet (1990). Vertebral growth zone deposition in Pacific angel sharks. Copeia 1990: 1133-1145.

Natanson, L. J., J. G. Casey, and N. E. Kohler (1995). Age and growth estimates for the dusky shark, Carcharhinus obscurus, in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Fishery Bulletin 93: 116–126.

Natanson, L. J. (2001). Preliminary investigations into the age and growth of the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, and thresher shark, Alopias vulpinus, in the western north Atlantic ocean. Col. Vol. Sci. Pap. ICCAT 54(4): 1280-1293.

Natanson, L. J., J. J. Mello, and S. E. Campana (2002). Validated age and growth of the porbeagle shark (Lamna nasus) in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Fishery Bulletin 10: 266–278.

Natanson, L.J., N. E. Kohler, D. Ardizzone, G. M. Cailliet, S. P. Wintner, and H. F. Mollet (2006). Validated age and growth estimates for the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, in the North Atlantic Ocean. Environmental Biology of Fishes 77: 367–383.

Oshitani, S., H. Nakano, and S. Tanaka (2003). Age and growth of the silky shark, Carcharhinus falciformis from the Pacific Ocean. Fisheries Science 69: 456-464.

Panfili, J., H. de Pontual, H. Troadec, and P. J. Wright (2002). Manual of fish sclerochronology. Ifremer-IRD coedition, Brest, France, 464 pp.

Pollintine, P., A. S. Przybyla, P. Dolan, and M. A. Adams (2004). Neural arch load-bearing in old and degenerated spines. Journal of Biomechanics 37: 197-204.

Pratt, H. L., Jr. and J. G. Casey (1983). Age and growth of the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, using four methods. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 40(11): 1944-1957.

Ribot-Carballal, M. C., F. Galván-Magaña, and C. Quiñónez-Velázquez (2005). Age and growth of the shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus, from the western coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico. Fisheries Research 76: 14-21.

Ricker, W. E. (1975). Computation and interpretation of biological statistics of fish populations. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 191: 1–382.

Robertson, T. B. (1923). The chemical basis of growth and senescence. J. B. Lippincott, Philadelphia, 98 pp.

Sanzo, L. (1912). Embrione di Carcharodon rondeleletii M. Hle. con particolare disposizione del sacco vitellino. Regio Comitato Talassografico Italiano, Memoria XI:1-12.
Schrey, A. W. and E. J. Heist (2003). Microsatellite analysis of population structure in the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 60: 670-675.

Schindler, D. E., T. E. Essington, J. F. Kitchell, C. Boggs, and R. Hilborn (2002). Sharks and tunas: fisheries impacts on predators with contrasting life histories. Ecological Applications 12: 735-748.

Semba Y., H. Nakano and I. Aoki (2009). Age and growth analysis of the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, in the western and central North Pacific Ocean. Environmental Biology of Fishes 84:377–391.

Sepulveda, C. A., S. Kohin, C. Chan, R. Vetter, and J. B. Graham (2004). Movement patterns, depth preferences, and stomach temperatures of free-swimming juvenile mako sharks, Isurus oxyrinchus, in the Southern California Bight. Marine Biology 145: 191-199.

Shen, S. C., S. C. Lee, K. T. Shao, H. K. Mok, C. H. Chen, and C. T. Chen (1993). Fishes of Taiwan. Department of Zoology. National Taiwan University, Taipei. 960 pp. (In Chinese.)

Siao. H. L. (2010). Age and growth of Japanese spurdog, Squalus japonicas in the northeastern waters of Taiwan. M. S. thesis, Institute of Marine Resource Management. National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan, 82 pp. (In Chinese)

Simpfendorfer, C. A., R. B. McAuley, J. Chidlow, and P. Unsworth (2002). Validated age and growth of the dusky shark, Carcharhinus obscurus, from western Australian waters. Marine and Freshwater Research 53: 567-573.

Skomal, G. B. and L. J. Nantanson (2003). Age and growth of the blue shark, Prionace glauca, in the North Atlantic Ocean. Fish Bulletin 101: 627-639.

Smith, C. L. (1983). Summary of round table discussions on back calculation. U. S. Dep. Commer. NOAA Technical Report, NMFS 8: 45-47.

Soriano, M., J. Moreau, J. M. Hoenig, and D. Pauly (1992) New functions for the analysis of two-phase growth of juvenile and adult fishes, with application to Nile perch. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 121:486−493.

Stevens, J. D. (1983). Observations on reproduction in the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus. Copeia 1983: 126-130.

Stevens, J. D., R Bonfil, N. K. Dulvy, and P. A. Walker (2000). The effects of fishing on sharks, rays, and chimeras(chondrichthyans), and the implications for marine ecosystems. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57: 476–494.

Stillwell, C.E. and N. E. Kohler (1982). Food, feeding habits, and estimates of daily ration of the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) in the Northwest Atlantic. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 39: 407-414.

Sulikowski, J. A., S. B. Irvine, K. C. DeValerio, and J. K. Carlson (2007). Age, growth and maturity of the roundel skate, Raja texana, from the Gulf of Mexico, USA. Marine and Freshwater Research 58: 41–53.

Tanaka, S., G. M. Cailliet, and K. G. Yudin (1990). Differences in growth of the blue shark, Prionace glauca: technique of population? In: Elasmobranchs as living resources: advances in the biology, ecology, systematics, and the status of the fisheries (H. L. Pratt Jr., S. H. Gruber, and T. Taniuchi, eds.). U. S. Dep. Comm. NOAA Technical Report, NMFS 90:177-187.

Taylor, C. C. (1958). Cod growth and temperature. ICES Journal of Marine Science 23: 366-370.

Von Bertalanffy, L. (1938). A quantitative theory of organic growth (Inquiries on growth law. II). Human Biology 10: 181-213.

Wang, T. M. (1981). Studies on biology of smooth dogfish, Mustelus griseus in Taiwan strait. M. S. thesis, Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries. National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan, 90 pp. (In Chinese)

Wang, T. M. and C. T. Chen (1982). Age and growth of smooth dogfish, Mustelus griseus, in northwestern Taiwan water. Journal of the Fisheries Society of Taiwan 9: 1-12.
Wells, R. J. D., S. E. Smith, S. Kohin, E. Freund, N. Spear, and D. A. Ramon (2013). Age validation of juvenile shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) tagged and marked with oxytetracycline off southern California. Fishery Bulletin 111:147–160.

Winemiller, K. O. and K. A. Rose (1992). Patterns of life-history diversification in north American fishes: implication for population regulation. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49: 2196–2218.

Wintner, S. P. and G. Cliff (1999). Age and growth determination of the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, from the east coast of South Africa. Fishery Bulletin 97: 153-169.

Wintner, S. P. and S. F. J. Dudley (2000). Age and growth estimates for the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier, from the east coast of South Afica. Marine and Freshwater Research 51: 43-53.

Wintner, S. P., S. F. J. Dudley, N. Kistnasamy, and B. Everett (2002). Age and growth estimates for the zambezi shark, Carcharhinus leucas, from the east coast of South Africa. Marine and Freshwater Research 53: 557-566.

Wourms, J. P. (1977). Reproduction and development in chondrichthyan fishes. American Zoologist 17:379-410.

Wu, C. P. (2009). Comparison of fitting growth functions on length-age data of elasmobranchs. M.S. thesis. Institute of Marine Affairs and Resource Management. National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan, 81 pp. (In Chinese)

Yamaguchi, M. (1975). Estimating growth parameters from growth rate data. Oecologia (Berlin) 20: 321-332.

Yin, M. C. (1998). Fish ecology. The Sueichan Press, Keelung, 537 pp.
電子全文
全文檔開放日期:2016/07/27
 
 
 
 
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
* *